Illustrations of a ‘Normal’ (first order) Outflow, a Delay Outflow, and a Fixed Delay Outflow
Contributed by Bruce Skarin
This model is the product of my Major Qualifying Project (MQP) for my Bachelors degree in the field of system dynamics at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. There were two goals to this project:
1) To develop a model that reasonably simulates the historic attacks by the al-Qaida terrorist network against the United States.
2) To evaluate the usefulness of the model for developing public understanding of the terrorism problem.
The full model and report are available on my website.
The reference mode for this model was the escalation of attacks linked to al-Qaida against the U.S., as shown below. The data for this chart is available through this Google Document.
Causal View of the Model
Below is the causal diagram of the primary feedback loops in the model.
Online Story Model
Model Name: payments, penalties, and environmental ethic
Citation: Dudley, R. 2007. Payments, penalties, payouts, and environmental ethics: a system dynamics examination Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 3(2):24-35. http://ejournal.nbii.org/archives/vol3iss2/0706-013.dudley.html.
Source: Richard G. Dudley
Copyright: Richard G. Dudley (2007)
License: Gnu GPL
Peer reviewed: Yes (probably when submitted for publication?)
Units balance: Yes
Target audience: People interested in the concept of payments for environmental services as a means of improving land use and conservation of natural resources.
Questions answered: How might land users’ environmental ethic be influenced by, and influence, payments for environmental services.
Submitted by Richard Dudley:
Models in the Special Issue of the System Dynamics Review on Environmental and Resource Systems, Andrew Ford & Robert Cavana, Editors. System Dynamics Review, Volume 20, Number 2, Summer of 2004.
- Modeling the Effects of a Log Export Ban in Indonesia by Richard G. Dudley
- The Dynamics of Water Scarcity in Irrigated Landscapes: Mazarron and Aguilas in South-eastern Spain by Julia Martinez Fernandez & Angel Esteve Selma
- Misperceptions of Basic Dynamics: The Case of Renewable Resource Management by Erling Moxnes
- Models for Management of Wildlife Populations: Lessons from Spectacle Bears in Zoos and Gizzly Bears in Yellowstone by Lisa Faust, Rosemary Jackson, Andrew Ford, Joanne Earnhardt and Steven Thompson
- Modeling a Blue-Green Algae Bloom by Steven Arquitt & Ron Johnstone
See the following web site for article summaries and downloadable models described in this special issue: http://www.wsu.edu/~forda/SIOpen.html
Long ago, in the MIT SD PhD seminar, a group of us replicated and critiqued a number of classic models. Some of those formed the basis for my model library. Around that time, Liz Keating wrote a nice summary of “How to Critique a Model.” That used to be on my web site in the mid-90s, but I lost track of it. I haven’t seen an adequate alternative, so I recently tracked down a copy. Here it is: SD Model Critique (thanks, Liz). I highly recommend a look, especially with the SD conference paper submission deadline looming.
This is the first of several posts on models of the transition to alternative fuel vehicles. The first looks at a static equilibrium model of the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). Another will look at another model of the LCFS, called VISION-CA, which generates fuel carbon intensity scenarios. Finally, I’ll discuss Jeroen Struben’s thesis, which is a full dynamic model that closes crucial loops among vehicle fleets, consumer behavior, fueling infrastructure, and manufacturers’ learning. At some point I will try to put the pieces together into a general reflection on alt fuel policy.
Those who know me might be surprised to see me heaping praise on a static model, but I’m about to do so. Not every problem is dynamic, and sometimes a comparative statics exercise yields a lot of insight.
In a no-longer-so-new paper, Holland, Hughes, and Knittel work out the implications of the LCFS and some variants. In a nutshell, a low carbon fuel standard is one of a class of standards that requires providers of a fuel (or managers of some kind of portfolio) to meet some criteria on average – X grams of carbon per MJ of fuel energy, or Y% renewable content, for example. If trading is allowed (fun, no?), then the constraint effectively applies to the market portfolio as a whole, rather than to individual providers, which should be more efficient. The constraint in effect requires the providers to set up an internal tax and subsidy system – taxing products that don’t meet the standard, and subsidizing those that do. The LCFS sounds good on paper, but when you do the math, some problems emerge:
We show this decreases high-carbon fuel production but increases low-carbon fuel production, possibly increasing net carbon emissions. The LCFS cannot be efficient, and the best LCFS may be nonbinding. We simulate a national LCFS on gasoline and ethanol. For a broad parameter range, emissions decrease; energy prices increase; abatement costs are large ($80-$760 billion annually); and average abatement costs are large ($307-$2,272 per CO tonne). A cost effective policy has much lower average abatement costs ($60-$868).